Three-dimensional pentamode metamaterials are artificial solids that approximately behave like liquids, which have vanishing shear modulus. Pentamodes have recently become experimental reality. Here, we calculate their phonon band structures for various parameters. Consistent with static continuum mechanics, we find that compression and shear waves exhibit phase velocities that can realistically be different by more than one order of magnitude. Interestingly, we also find frequency intervals with more than two octaves bandwidth in which pure single-mode behavior is obtained. Herein, exclusively compression waves exist due to a complete three-dimensional band gap for shear waves and, hence, no coupling to shear modes is possible. Such single-mode behavior might, e.g., be interesting for transformation-elastodynamics architectures.