Generalized Hartmann-Shack array of dielectric metalens sub-arrays for polarimetric beam profiling
Z. Yang, Z. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Feng, M. Zhao, Z. Wan, L. Zhu, J. Liu, Y. Huang, J. Xia, and M. Wegener
Nat. Commun. 9, 4607 (2018)
- Date: 2.11.2018
To define and characterize optical systems, obtaining the amplitude, phase, and polarization profile of optical beams is of utmost importance. Traditional polarimetry is well established to characterize the polarization state. Recently, metasurfaces have successfully been introduced as compact optical components. Here, we take the metasurface concept to the system level by realizing arrays of metalenses, allowing the determination of the polarization profile of an optical beam. We use silicon-based metalenses with a numerical aperture of 0.32 and a mean measured focusing efficiency in transmission mode of 28% at a wavelength of 1550 nm. Our system is extremely compact and allows for real-time beam diagnostics by inspecting the foci amplitudes. By further analyzing the foci displacements in the spirit of a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, we can simultaneously detect phase-gradient profiles. As application examples, we diagnose the profiles of a radially polarized beam, an azimuthally polarized beam, and of a vortex beam.